United Arab Emirates - Wikipedia

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Burial sites dating back to the Neolithic Age and the Bronze Age include the oldest known such inland site at Jebel Buhais. The ensuing Wadi Suq period and three Iron Ages saw the emergence of nomadism as well as the development of water management and irrigation systems supporting human settlement in both the coast and interior. The UAE' history of trade led to the emergence of Julfarin the present-day emirate of Ras Al Khaimah, as a regional trading and maritime hub in the area.

The maritime dominance of the Persian Gulf by Emirati traders led to conflicts with European powers, including the Portuguese Empire and the British Empire. Following decades of maritime conflict, the coastal emirates became known as the Trucial States with the signing of the General Maritime Treaty with the British in ratified in and again inwhich established the Trucial States as a British protectorate.

This arrangement ended with independence and the establishment of the United Arab Emirates on 2 December following the British withdrawal from its treaty obligations. Stone tools recovered reveal a settlement of people from Africa someyears ago and a stone tool used for butchering animals discovered on the Arabian coast suggests an even older habitation fromyears ago.

This contact persisted and became wider, probably motivated by the trade in copper from the Hajar Mountainswhich commenced around 3, BCE. From 1, BCE to the advent of Islam in Eastern Arabia, through three distinctive Iron Ages and the Mleiha period, the area was variously occupied by the Achaemenids and other forces, and saw the construction of fortified settlements and extensive husbandry thanks to the development of the falaj irrigation system. From the second century CE, there was a movement of tribes from Al Bahreyn towards the lower Gulf, tranzacționând roboți pe forturi with a migration among the Tranzacționând roboți pe forturi Qahtani or Yamani and Quda'ah tribal groups from south-west Arabia towards central Oman.

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Islam The spread of Islam to the North Eastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula is thought to have followed directly from a letter sent by the Islamic Prophet, Muhammadto the rulers of Oman in CE, nine years after the hijrah.

This led to a group of rulers travelling to Medinaconverting to Islam and subsequently driving a successful uprising against the unpopular Sasanids, who dominated the Northern coasts at the time. The Caliph Abu Bakr sent an army from the capital Medina which completed its reconquest of the territory the Ridda Wars with the Battle tranzacționând roboți pe forturi Dibba in which 10, lives are thought to have been lost.

InJulfar in the area of today's Ras Al Khaimah was an important port that was used as a staging post tranzacționând roboți pe forturi the Islamic invasion of the Sasanian Empire. Thought to be Nestorian and built in CE, the church appears to have been abandoned peacefully in CE. The harsh desert environment led to the emergence of the "versatile tribesman", nomadic groups who subsisted due to a variety of economic activities, including animal husbandry, agriculture and hunting.

The seasonal movements of these groups led to not only frequent clashes tranzacționând roboți pe forturi groups but also the establishment of seasonal and semi-seasonal settlements and centres. By the 18th century, the Bani Yas confederation was the dominant force in most of the area now known as Abu Dhabi, [35] [36] [37] while the Northern Al Qawasim Al Qasimi dominated maritime commerce.

The Portuguese maintained an influence over the coastal settlements, building forts in the wake of the bloody 16th-century conquests of coastal communities by Albuquerque and the Portuguese commanders who followed him — particularly on the east coast at MuscatSohar and Khor Fakkan. Main cities, ports and routes.

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A painting depicting the burning of the coastal town and port of Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah during the Persian Gulf campaign of British expeditions to protect their Indian trade routes led to campaigns against Ras Al Khaimah and other harbours along the coast, including the Persian Gulf Campaign of tranzacționând roboți pe forturi the more successful campaign of The following year, Britain and a number of local rulers signed a maritime trucegiving rise to the term Trucial Stateswhich came to define the status of the coastal emirates.

A further treaty was signed in and, in the Perpetual Treaty of Maritime Truce was agreed.

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To this was added the 'Exclusive Agreements', signed inwhich made the Trucial States a British protectorate. In return, the Tranzacționând roboți pe forturi promised to protect the Trucial Coast from all aggression by sea and to help in case of land attack.

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However, the British prohibition of the slave trade meant an important source of income was lost to some sheikhs and merchants. Khawr al Udayd was claimed by Abu Dhabi at that time, a claim supported by the British.

United Arab Emirates

In it was the last Al-Qasimi tranzacționând roboți pe forturi to fall in the Persian Gulf campaign of The fall of Dhayah was to pave the way for the signing of the General Maritime Treaty of During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the pearling industry thrived, providing both income and employment to the people of the Persian Gulf.

The First World War had a severe impact on the industry, but it was the economic depression of the late s and early s, coupled with the invention of the cultured pearlthat wiped out the trade. The remnants of the trade eventually faded away shortly after the Second World Warwhen the newly independent Government of India imposed heavy taxation on pearls imported from the Arab states of the Persian Gulf.

The decline of pearling resulted in extreme economic hardship in the Trucial States.

Aware of the potential for the development of natural resources such as oil, following tranzacționând roboți pe forturi in Persia from and Mesopotamia froma British-led oil company, the Iraq Petroleum Company IPCshowed an interest in the region.

A number of options between PCL and the tranzacționând roboți pe forturi rulers were signed, providing useful revenue for communities experiencing poverty following the collapse of the pearl trade. However, the wealth of oil which the rulers could see from the revenues accruing to surrounding countries such as Iran, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and Saudi Arabia remained elusive.

Dubai in ; the area in this photo shows Bur Dubai in the foreground centered on Al-Fahidi Fort ; Deira in middle-right on the other side of the creek; and Al Shindagha left and Al Ras right in the background across the creek again from Deira The British set up a development office that helped in some small developments in the emirates.

The seven sheikhs of the emirates then decided to form a council to coordinate matters between them and took over the development office.

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The council was terminated once the United Arab Emirates was formed. The Trucial Oman Scouts was a small military force used by the British to keep the peace. A number of undersea oil surveys were carried out, including one led by tranzacționând roboți pe forturi famous marine explorer Jacques Cousteau. In March, it struck oil in the Upper Thamama, a rock formation that would provide many valuable oil finds.

This was the first commercial discovery of the Trucial Coast, leading to the first exports of oil in ADMA made further offshore discoveries at Zakum and elsewhere, and other companies made commercial finds such as the Fateh oilfield off Dubai and the Mubarak field off Sharjah shared with Iran.

However, on 27 Octoberthe company discovered oil in commercial quantities at the Murban No. As oil revenues increased, the ruler of Abu Dhabi, Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyanundertook a massive construction program, building schools, housing, hospitals and roads.

When Dubai's oil exports commenced inSheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoumthe ruler of Dubai, was able to invest the revenues from the limited reserves found to spark the diversification drive that would create the modern global city of Dubai. Byit had become clear the British government could no longer afford to administer and protect what is now the United Arab Emirates.

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Secretary of State for Defence Denis Healey reported that the British Armed Forces were seriously overstretched and in some respects dangerously under-equipped to defend the sheikhdoms. On 24 JanuaryBritish Prime Minister Harold Wilson announced the government's decision, reaffirmed in March by Prime Minister Edward Heathto end the treaty relationships with the seven Trucial Sheikhdoms, that had been, together with Bahrain and Qatar, under British protection.

Days after the announcement, the ruler of Abu Dhabi, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyanfearing vulnerability, tried to persuade the British to honour the protection treaties by offering to pay the full costs of keeping the British Armed Forces in the Emirates. The British Labour government rejected the offer.

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An Iranian destroyer group broke formation from an exercise in the lower Gulf, sailing to the Tunb islands. The islands were taken by force, civilians and Arab defenders alike allowed to flee. A British warship stood idle during the course of the invasion.

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Meanwhile, Saudi Arabia laid claim to swathes of Abu Dhabi. When the British-Trucial Sheikhdoms treaty expired on 1 Decemberboth emirates became fully independent. Ras al-Khaimah joined it later, on 10 January The four colours of the flag are the Pan-Arab colors red, green, white, and black, and represent the unity of the Arab nations.

It was adopted on 2 December The country had already signed a military defence agreement with the U. The first ever national elections were held in the UAE on 16 December A number of voters chose half of the members of the Federal National Council.

The UAE has largely escaped the Arab Springwhich other countries have experienced; however, 60 Emirati activists from Al Islah were apprehended for an alleged coup attempt and the attempt of the establishment of an Islamism state in the UAE. Please tranzacționând roboți pe forturi improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. It shares a kilometre  mi border with Saudi Arabia on the west, south, and southeast, and a kilometre  mi border with Oman on the southeast and northeast.

The land border with Qatar in the Khawr al Udayd area is about nineteen kilometres 12 miles in the northwest; however, it is a source of ongoing dispute.

The UAE also disputes claim on other islands against the neighboring state of Qatar. Six of the emirates are on situated along the Persian Gulf, and the seventh, Fujairah is on the eastern coast of the peninsula with direct access to the Gulf of Oman.

Numerous islands are found in the Persian Gulf, and the ownership of some of them has been the subject of international disputes with both Iran and Qatar. The smaller în cazul în care puteți face o mulțime de bani site- ul, as well as many coral reefs and shifting sandbars, are a menace to navigation.

Strong tides and metoda opțiunilor binare kovalev windstorms further complicate ship movements near the shore.

The desert area of Abu Dhabi includes two important oases with adequate underground water for permanent settlements and cultivation. The extensive Liwa Oasis is in the south near the undefined border with Saudi Arabia.

About  km 62 mi to the northeast of Liwa is the Al-Buraimi oasis, which extends on both sides of the Abu Dhabi-Oman border. Lake Zakher in Al Ain is a human-made lake near the border with Oman that was created from treated waste water. In general, the rulers of the emirates accepted the British interventions, but in the case of boundary disputes between Abu Dhabi and Dubai, and also between Dubai and Sharjah, conflicting claims were not resolved until after the UAE became independent.

The most complicated borders were in the Al-Hajar al-Gharbi Mountains, where five tranzacționând roboți pe forturi the emirates contested jurisdiction over more than a dozen enclaves.

In the desert, the flora is very sparse and consists of grasses and thorn bushes. The indigenous fauna had come close to extinction because of intensive hunting, which has led to a conservation program on Sir Bani Yas Island initiated by Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan in the s, resulting in the survival of, for example, Arabian OryxArabian camel and leopards.

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Coastal fish and mammals consist mainly of mackerelperchand tunaas well as sharks and whales. Climate The climate of the UAE is subtropical-arid with hot summers and warm winters. The climate is categorized as desert climate. The hottest months are July and August, when average maximum temperatures reach above 45 °C  °F on the coastal plain.

In the Al Hajar Mountainstemperatures are considerably lower, a result of increased elevation.

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The average annual rainfall in the coastal area is less than  mm 4. Rain in the coastal region falls in short, torrential bursts during the summer months, sometimes resulting in floods in ordinarily dry wadi beds.

All responsibilities not granted to the national government are reserved to the individual emirate. The title is used due to the sheikhdom styled governing system in adherence to the culture of tribes of Arabiawhere Sheikh means leader, elder, or the tribal chief of the clan who partakes in shared decision making with his followers.